Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west. The written history of Iran dates back to 3200 BC. It begins with the early Achaemenids,
Cyrus the Great was the founder of the empire and is the first to establish the charter of human rights. In this period, Iran stretched from the Aegean coast to Afghanistan and from south to Egypt. The Achaeamenid Empire was overthrown by Alexander the Great in 330 BC and was followed by The Seleucid Greek Dynasty. Post Seleucids, history witnessed about dozen of successive dynasties such as Parthian, Sassanid, Samanid, Ghaznavid, Safavid, Zand, Afsharid, Qajar and Pahlavi. In 1979, the nation, under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini, erupted into revolution and the current Islamic republic of Iran was founded.
There is a wide range of places to visit in Iran, a country that has something for everyone, from lovers of art and culture to the more adventurous, there are several magnificent ruins of ancient cities, glorious mosques and mausoleums. The adventure seekers can enjoy budget-priced skiing, trekking, or some rock climbing. Ancient civilizations, culture constitutes the focal point and heart of Iranian civilization. The art, music, architecture, poetry, philosophy, traditions, and ideology of Iran have made it a continuously important nation in the global community.
Iran is a country of mountains and deserts. Its huge oil reserves lie in the southwest, along the Persian Gulf. Iran enjoys many different beaches with different mood. Shores of the Caspian Sea have mild and relatively cold weather and southern sides enjoy moderate and pleasant weather. The coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south can be seen as rocky, mountainous, sandy and swampy, it is not as even as the northern shores of the country.